More than 100 scientists call for Covid 19 vaccines to be in the public domain

To make it available to everyone, the vaccine should be released from any patent. It should be in the public domain. This will allow governments, foundations, non-profit organizations, philanthropic individuals and social enterprises to come forward to produce and/or distribute this worldwide.

As the Covid-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc across the globe, research into finding an effective vaccine continues, both in the pharmaceutical industry and in public research. Indeed, everyone converges on the idea that ultimately, the only way to definitively eradicate the pandemic is to have a vaccine that can be administered to all the inhabitants of the planet, urban or rural, men or women, living in rich or poor countries. 

The effectiveness of a vaccination campaign is based on its universality. Governments should make it available free of cost. Only the people who want special service delivery they can pay for the services and the vaccine. To make available to all, vaccines should be made free from any patent. It should be in public domain. This will allow governments, foundations, charity organizations, philanthropist individuals and social businesses (that is, businesses which are created to solve people’s problems without taking any personal profit out of it) to come forward to produce and/or distribute this all over the world. 

The search for a new vaccine is a long process (stipulated time is about 18 months in the case of the current pandemic, which would be an absolute speed record). This research is costly. Many commercial research laboratories who are engaged in this research will be expecting a high return on their investment. We need to work out formula what would be fair level of this return in exchange of putting the formula in the public domain. The most important thing is to put the result in the public domain, making it available to be produced by anybody under strict international regulatory supervision. 

Individual government, or a group of governments , or foundation/s, individual philanthropist/s, global organization, like WHO, with private and public support, may come forward to finance it. But the ethical question of great importance that is needed to be resolved is how much profit should a laboratory or an inventor be entitled to for a life-saving drug needed by all people all over the world. At the same time we should also consider what global honour and recognition we give to the inventor/s and laboratories who put this in public domain unconditionally with no financial charge, or at cost. 

In this context a precedent may inspire us. It is the history of the polio vaccine. In the 1950s, polio was a terrible disease, also caused by a virus, which affected children (approximately 20,000 cases per year), causing lifelong paralysis. Jonas Salk (1914-1995) an American biologist invented the first polio vaccine. To develop this vaccine, he received a grant from a Foundation founded by President Roosevelt with donations from millions of Americans. For achievement of his success he credited the participation of 1.4 million children on whom the vaccine was tested.                                                

Researchers developing therapeutic innovations such as vaccines need everyone's cooperation. A vaccine can only work if inoculations are carried out on a large scale. Salk never patented his invention. He did not demand any royalties from it. All he was interested in was to disseminate the vaccine as widely as possible, as fast as possible.                                              

This is a good time to set a norm for the world so that we do not get blinded by money and forget lives of billions of people.

Paris and Rome, May 1st, 2020

Support the appeal of the scientists by signing the Petition here on Change.org.

I'm advocating that Covid19 vaccines should be in the public domain.

Here are the first signatories at roll call:

1. Catherine Belzung, Professeure, Université de Tours et Membre Senior de l’Institut Universitaire de France, France
2. Antonine Nicoglou, MCF en Philosophie, Université de Tours, France
3. Luigino Bruni, Professore di Economia Politica, LUMSA, Rome, Italia, Fondatore della Scuola di Economia Civile
4. Muhammad Yunus, Professor, Nobel Prize of Peace 2006, Bangladesh.
5. Stefano Zamagni, Professore di Economia, Universita de Bologna, Italia, Presidente della Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze Sociali
6. Mariana Mazzucato, Professor in the Economics of Innovation and Public Value, Founding Director, Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose, University College London, Londres, Royaume Uni
7. Cristina Bicchieri, S. J. P. Harvie Professor of Social Thoughts and Comparative Ethics, Université de Pennsylvanie, Direttrice del “Center for Social Norms and Behavioral Dynamics”, USA, et Honorary Fellow, Wolfson College, Cambridge
8. Jeniffer Nedelsky, Professor of Law and Political Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada
9. Jeffrey Sachs, Professor in Economics, Columbia University, New York, USA, Consulente del Segretario Generale delle Nazioni Unite
10. Didier Sicard, Professeur émérite de médecine à l’Université Paris Descartes, France, Président du Comité consultatif national d’éthique (fino al 2008),
11. Philippe Huneman, DR, Institut d'Histoire et de Philosophie des sciences, CNRS. Paris I Sorbonne, France
12. Alain Caillé, professeur émérite de sociologie à l'université Paris-Ouest-La Défense, fondateur et directeur du Mouvement anti-utilitariste en sciences sociales (MAUSS) et co-promoteur du Manifeste convivialiste I et II (France)
13. Rev. Mons. Robert J. Vitillo, Secretary General, International Catholic Migration Commission, Geneva, Suisse
14. Dominique Quinio, Présidente des Semaines sociales de France, France
15. Ghassan Moukheiber, Lawyer, former member of Parliament, Human rights and anti corruption activist, Beirut, Liban
16. Grammenos Mastrojeni, Senior Deputy Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean, Diplomat, Professor, Ecrivain, Italie
17. Jeong-Woo Kil, PhD, former Member of the National Assembly, former Publisher of the JoongAng Daily, Korea
18. Myoung-Ock Ahn, MD,PhD,DrPH, former President of the Korean National Medical Center, former Member of the National Assembly, Korea
19. Marie-Jo Thiel, Professeure, Université de Strasbourg, France, Directrice du CEERE
20. José Manuel Pureza, Membre et Vice-President du Parlement Portugais, Portugal 19. Francis Eustache, Professeur, Directeur de l'unité INSERM-EPHE-UNICAEN U1077 "Neuropsychologie et Imagerie de la Mémoire Humaine" (NIMH)
21. Dr.Kezevino Aram, President, Shanti Ashram, Founder, International Center for Child and Public Health, Coimbatore, Inde
22. Aloysius John, Secretary General, Cartias Internationalis, Rome, Italie
23. Jérôme Vignon, Président de l’Observatoire national de la pauvreté et de l'exclusion sociale et de l'Observatoire national de la précarité énergétique, France
24. Roberto Battiston, Full Professor in Physics, Università di Trento, Italie, già Presidente dell'Agenzia Spaziale Italiana
25. Sandro Carrara, IEEE Fellow, Editeur-en-Chef de IEEE Sensors Journal, Maître d'Enseignement et de Recherche (MER), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Suisse.
26. Cristina Calvo, program director at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
27. Pasquale Ferrara, Diplomate, Adjunct Professor of Diplomacy, LUISS - Rome; International Relations, IUS - Figline Incisa Valdarno (Florence), Italie
28. Francis Eustache, Professeur, Directeur de l'unité INSERM-EPHE-UNICAEN U1077 "Neuropsychologie et Imagerie de la Mémoire Humaine" (NIMH)
29. Gennaro Iorio, Professor in Sociology, Director of the Department of Social Political Science, University of Salerno, Italy
30. Stephan Schulmeister, economista, Università di Vienna, Austria
31. Isabelle Drouet, MCF en philosophie des sciences, Sorbonne Université, France
32. Elaine A Del Bel (PhD); Professeur en Physiologie, Ribeirão Preto, Brésil, President de la « Federation of Latin American and Caribbean Neuroscience Societies »
33. André S Pupo, Associate Professor of Pharmacology, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Unesp, Botucatu), Botucatu, Brésil. President (2018-2020) Brazilian Society of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (SBFTE
34. Steeves Demazeux, MCF en philosophie des sciences, Université Bordeaux-Montaigne, France
35. Anouk Grevin, MCF en sciences de gestion, Université de Nantes, France
36. Isabella Pagano, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Direttore dell'Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italia
37. Mathieu Monconduit, PU PH en Maladies du Sang (retraité) Université de Rouen, France
38. Micaela Gliozzi, Ricercatrice, IRC-FSH, Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università "Magna Grecia" di Catanzaro, Italia
39. Cilene Lino de Oliveira, Associate Professor in Behavioural Neurosciences, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brésil.
40. Daniele Spadaro, Senior Researcher in Astrophysics, National Institute for Astrophysics, Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, Italie
41. Donatien Mallet, Professeur associé en soins palliatifs, Université de Tours, France
42. Gabriel Ferrero, Astrophysist, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentine
43. Alexandre Surget, MCF en Neurosciences, Université de Tours, France
44. Lara Keuck, Branco Weiss Fellow, Department of History, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germania
45. Wieslaw M. Macek, full professor of physical sciences at the Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University and the Space Research Centre, Warsaw, Polonia
46. François Clauss, Président du Comité d'Ethique, Université de Strasbourg
47. Carine Ciceron, médecin, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France
48. Ornella Valenti, Associate Professor in Neurosciences, Medical University Vienna, Austriche
49. Luca Fiorani, Research scientist at ENEA, Physics, Frascati and Adjunct professor at "Lumsa", "Marconi" & "Roma Tre" universities, Rome, Italie
50. Jan Morovic, Senior Color Scientist, HP Inc., Colchester, Royaume Uni
51. Claire Renard, Ingénieur de recherche, Génétique, Lyon, France
52. Jozef Klembara, Professor in Paelontology, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakie
53. Zsuzsa Romàn, specialist of public health, Sophia University Istitute, Loppiano, Italie
54. Klaus Petry, DR en Technologies de la Santé, INSERM et Université de Bordeaux, France
55. Nora Abrous, DR en Neurosciences, INSERM et Université de Bordeaux, France
56. Miguel Oliveira Panão, Professor Auxiliar, Ingéniérie mécanique, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal
57. Susana Rebelo, Professor Auxiliar, Chimie, Universidade Porto, Portugal
58. Vincenzo Musolino,Researcher, IRC-FSH, Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Italie
59. Paolo Romano, Researcher in Astrophysics, National Institute of Astrophysics, Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, Italie
60. Rita Ventura, AZstronomer, National Institute for Astrophysics, Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, Italy
61. Maria Florencia Decarlini, Researcher in Microbiology, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Argentine
62. Sonja Sucic, Associate Professor, Neurochemistry, Medical University Vienna, Austria
63. Vasylyna Kovalchuk, PhD student, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Poland
64. Carlos Bloch Jr., Senior Scientist leader of the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation), Brasilia, Brazil
65. Ameya Kasture, University assistant, Neurosciences, , University of Vienna, Austria
66. Stefano Redaelli, professor of literature at the University of Warsaw, Pologne
67. Daniele C Aguiar, Associate Professor in Neuropscyhiatry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brésil
68. Roberto Andreatini, Full Professor, Neuropsychiatry, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, Brésil.
69. Vanessa Beijamini Harres, Associate Professor, Neurosciences, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, Brésil
70. Alline C de Campos, Assistant Professor, Neurosciences, Faculdade de Medicina USP-RP (FMRP-USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brésil.
71. Rubia M W de Oliveira, Associate Professor, Neurosciences, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Brésil
72. Francisco S Guimaraes, Full Professor, Neurosciences, Faculdade de Medicina USP-RP (FMRP-USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brésil
73. Sâmia R. L. Joca Wegener, Associate Professor, Psychophramacology, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas USP-RP (FCFRP-USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brésil
74. Aurea Elizabeth Linder, Associate Professor, Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brésil
75. Tatiani Maioli, Associate Professor, Public Health and Nutrition, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brésil
76. José Marino Neto, Full Professor, Retired, Behavioural Biology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, Brésil
77. Fabrício Araújo Moreira, Associate Professor, Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brésil
78. Sabine Martin, EHS Management-Environment, Health & Safety, Goettingen, Allemagne
79. Juri Pismak, Professor in Mathematics, Moscova, Russie
80. João Paiva, Assistant Professor, Chemistry, Universidade Porto, Portugal
81. Sophie Gerber, Chargée de Recherche, biologie, France
82. Stuart A. Newman, Professor of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, USA
83. Kamil M. Wielecki, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Warsaw, Pologne
84. Fernanda Barbosa Lima, Associate Professor, Physiology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brésil, coordinator of PhD program in Physiology at UFSC
85. Rui D Prediger, Full Professor,Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brésil, coordinator of PhD program in Pharmacology at UFSC
86. André Báfica, Associate Professor in Immunologu, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brésil
87. Milena Ninkovic, University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Goettingen, NS (Germany).
88. Silvia Cataldi, Sociologist, Sapienza University of Rome, Italie
89. Jill L. Tao, Professor and Chair, Department of Public Administration, Incheon National University, Corée du Sud
90. William A. Calvo-Quirós, Assistant Professor, American Culture, University of Michigan, USA.
91. Paulo Henrique Martins, Full Professor, Sociology, Universidad Federalde Pernambuco, Brésil
92. David Doat, MCF en Philosophie, Laboratoire ETHICS, Université Catholique de Lille, France
93. Russell G. Pearce, Professor of Law, Edward & Marilyn Bellet Chair in Legal Ethics, Morality & Religion, Fordham University School of Law, New Yrok, USA
94. Alan Wald, H. Chandler Davis Collegiate Professor, English Litterature and Amercian Culture, University of Michigan, USA
95. Rabbi Burton L. Visotzky, Appleman Professor of Midrash and Interreligious Studies, Jewish Theological Seminary, New York, NY
96. Deborah Meehan, Executive Director, Leadership Learning Community, USA
97. Tomasz Paweł Krzeszowski, Professor, Social Sciences, University of Lodz/Warsaw, Pologne
98. Takashi Hayashita, Professor, Analytical Chemistry, Sophia University, Japan
99. Nadav Davidovitch, Director, School of Public Health, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
100. André Ariew, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Missouri, USA
101. Hussein Rashid, PhD, Independent Scholar
102. Tsvi Blanchard Meyer Struckmann Professor of Jewish Law, Law Faculty, Humboldt University Berlin, Allemagne
103. Paolo Parra Saiani, Associate Professor in Sociology, University of Genoa, Italy
104. Swethaa S. Ballakrishnen, Assistant Professor of Law (and, by courtesy, Sociology, Asian American Studies, and Criminology, Law and Society), University of California Irvine School of Law, USA.
105. Deborah J Cantrell, Professor of Law, University of Colorado Law School
106. Fernanda Bueno Morrone, Full Professor, School of Health and Life Sciences, Pontificia Universidade Católica do RS, PUCRS, Rio Grande, Brésil
107. Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Professor, School of Health and Life Sciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, PUCRS, Brésil
108. Teodoro Marotta, Physician, Local Health Authority Naples 1 Centre, Naples, Italie
109. Cláudia Calegaro Marques, Associate Professor, Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brésil
110. Dr. Debra Pearce-McCall, Founder, Center for Prosilient Minds; Board, Global Association for Interpersonal Neurobiology Studies, USA
111. Fabrício Andrade Martins Esteves, Instituto de Estudos Avançados do Centro universitário ASCES/UNITA, Pernambuco, Brasil.
112. Régis Gemerasca Mestriner, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
113. Jacques E. Mokhbat, Professor of Medicine, Lebanese American University School of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon
114. Rosario Cabañas. Allergy Consultant. Professor. La Paz University Hospital. La Paz Health Research Institute (IdiPAZ).Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Madrid. Spain.
115. Corinne Auge Gouillou, professeur, Université de Tours, FRANCE
116. Francesca Bosco, PhD, IRC-FSH, Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro, Italy
117. Federica Scarano, PhD, IRC-FSH, Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro, Italy
118. Saverio Nucera, PhD student, IRC-FSH, Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Graecia"of Catanzaro, Italy
119. Miriam Scicchitano, IRC-FSH, Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro, Italy
120. Guido Signorino, Professor of Applied Economics, University of Messina, Italy
121. Lorenza Guarnieri, Phd, IRC-FSH, Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro, Italy
122. Bruno Maria Chiara, PhD, ADDLab, Department Of Health Science,University "Magna Graecia"of Catanzaro, Italy
123. Roberto Bava, DVM - PhD, Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro, Italy
124. Roberta Macrì, PhD, IRC-FSH, Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro, Italy
125. Petra Steinmair-Pösel, PD Dr. theol., KPH Edith Stein, Austria
126. Pierre-Henri Gouyon, PhD, Pr. Professor at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, France
127. Michael Löwy, sociologue, DR émérite, France



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